U.S. Hop Varieties

High Alpha Acid (Bittering) Types: (Alpha acids--%-- contribute to the bitter flavor of beer. Brewing with aroma hops imparts other flavor characteristics to beer including smell and taste. Often both types are used.)

Eroica (M)--second highest alpha hop; developed after Galena; matures late and doesn't store well; 9- 12%.

Galena (B,H,M)--released by R.R. Romanko at University of Idaho in 1978; a selection from seedlings of Brewer's Gold with 50% higher alpha acid content; 11-13%, most popular high alpha hop.

Nuggett (H,M)--released by USDA at Prosser, Wash. in 1983; Brewer's Gold one of main parents; stores well, late to mature; 11-13%, second most popular high alpha hop.

Aroma Types:

Backa (H,M)--an old Yugoslavian hop; low yields; <3%.

Bramling Cross (M)--first raised in 1927 from the variety Bramling crossed with a male seedling from a Manitoba female; originated in response to the need for Verticillium wilt tolerant materials in England; 4.5-8%.

Cascade (H)--probably the most popular hop; from Fuggle and Russian hop (Serebrianker) cross; floral, spicy, citrusy; poor storage; 5-7%.

Columbia (M)--sibling of Willamette released in 1976 but with higher alpha (5-6%); triploid with a Fuggle parent; often substituted in trade for Fuggle.

Eastwell Golding (M)--originally grown at Eastwell Park, near Ashford, Kent, England some time before 1889; closely represents other types of English Goldings; 5-6.8%.

Elsasser (H,M)--an old French hop; low yields; <2%.

Fuggle (B,H,M)--English hop; oldest aroma hop in U.S.; from 1875 by Richard Fuggle; good growth in cool weather, especially if during bloom initiation; seeded; 4-5%; resistant to downy mildew.

Hallertau Mittelfrüher (not vigorous at H, replaced)--German variety susceptible to wilt and downy mildew; 4%.

Hersbrucker (not vigorous at H, replaced)--most important aroma variety in Germany; does not climb well; also from Hallertauer region; susceptible to downy mildew; 4%.

Liberty (B,H,M)--similar to Mt. Hood; triploid cross of Hallertau Mittlefrüher only with no farnesene in oil; 4-5%; named after Persian Gulf War.

Mt. Hood (M, not vigorous at H)--new variety released from Oregon Experiment Station in 1989; triploid Hallertauer Mittlefrüher type with improved yield, similar brewing properties; 3-4.5%.

Saaz (B,M,H)--an old Czech hop; low yields; original and most known lager hop; susceptible to downy mildew and red spider mite; <4%.

Spalter (M)--German hop early to mature; moderate yield; very good aroma; susceptible to diseases; 4- 5.5%.

Styrian Golding (M)--genetically the same or little different from Fuggle; grown in Slovenia and likely originally supplied from England as "Fuggles Golding"; 4-5%.

Tettnanger (H,M)--most widely grown of German hops; half the yield per plant of U.S. varieties; often seeded; second most popular aroma hop in U.S.; 4-5.5%; tolerant of downy mildew; mild, slightly spicy aroma.

Willamette (B,H,M)--released by Haunold in Oregon in 1976; triploid; similar to but more vigorous than Fuggle; reduced seed content; most widely grown aroma hop in U.S.; 4-5% resistent to downy mildew.

Dual Purpose--Aroma and High Alpha Acid

Aquila (H,M)--recent cultivar released from Idaho Experiment Station in 1987; has some aroma properties as well; not widely used; 6-8%; similar to Cluster.

Banner (M)--similar to Aquila and Cluster; 9-11%; moderate aroma; good yield.

Blue Northern Brewer (M)--sibling of Northern Brewer and similar only with dark purplish or "blue" leaves and stems; primarily ornamental.

Brewer's Gold (M)--a sibling of and similar to Bullion only maturing earlier and more disease resistant; from Prof. Salmon in England; 6-7.5%.

Bullion (M)--old English variety somewhat disease resistant; similar to Brewer's Gold; one of earliest grown hops in Oregon; 6-9% .

Centennial (H,M)--released by Zimmerman at Prosser, Wash. in 1990; citrusy and floral aroma; 9- 11%.

Chinook (B,H,M)--recent cultivar selected by C.E. Zimmerman at USDA in Prosser, Wash. and released in 1985; popular in Yakima Valley, Wash; 11-13%; similar to Galena; susceptible to downy mildew.

Cluster (M)--oldest U.S. variety and once dominant one; yields and stores well; susceptible to downey mildew; 6-8%.

Northdown (M)--released in 1971 to English growers in response to need for higher alpha-acid hops with resistance to powdery and downy mildews; susceptible to wilt; 7-10%.

Northern Brewer (M)--grown in England and Germany; moderate yield; susceptible to diseases; 6- 7.5%.

Olympic (M)--similar to Chinook; moderate aroma; high yield; susceptible to mildews; 11-13%.

Perle (H,M)--recent German cultivar with high alpha content (6.5-9%) and aroma similar to Hallertau Mittlefrüher; from Hallertauer region of Germany.

Saxon (M)--English hop released to meet the need for a higher alpha-acid hop with resistance to wilt; no longer grown; 6-7%.

Wild, Westford (M)--old unnamed variety collected along road in Westford, VT; Cluster type; good aroma properties; 6%.

Wild, Bolton (M)--old unnamed variety collected in Bolton, VT.

Wild, Sudbury (M)--old, unnamed variety collected in Sudbury, MA.

Wild, Green Mountain (M)--old variety dating to at least 1832 in Greensboro, VT;6%

Return to Perry's Hops Pages

Dr. Leonard Perry, Plant and Soil Science Dept. University of Vermont, Burlington, VT 05405